Be careful not to confuse these ideas! See the shape of the harmonic minor scale of A (the seventh major degree is highlighted in red) below: Try playing this scale repeatedly to feel the melody. We tend to say that major scales have a ‘happier’ and ‘cheerier’ sound, whereas minor scales have For example: the notes of the A natural minor scale are exactly the same as the notes of the C major scale, the A natural minor scale only starts on the A instead … The Major scale formula = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C major scale = C D E F G A B The Minor Pentatonic scale formula = 1 b3 4 5 b7 C Minor Pentatonic = C Eb F G Bb So you play the first note of the major scale, then the third note lowered by a half step, the fourth note, the fifth note and the seventh note lowered by a half step. He graduated from The Royal Academy of Music in 2012 and then launched Hello Music Theory in 2014. Thankfully, in practice, as we already mentioned in the article “How and where to apply scales“, you will hardly apply this scale thinking about the key in this way. The change comes in the seventh degree. How to use the harmonic minor scale. See the key of G major: This makes our life a little difficult, because we would always need to be paying attention to the corresponding degrees and tonalities to know when we can and when we cannot apply the harmonic minor scale. The context in which the harmonic minor scale most often appears in solos, riffs or arrangements is when a V7 chord resolves in a minor chord. Changing the 7th to a major 7th, transforms the scale into a Harmonic Minor scale. b3 (flat three) means you take the third note of the major scale only a half step down. The most common use of the harmonic minor scale presents itself in chord progressions in a minor key. 3 - Build an A minor scale. In this music theory video lesson, we will learn how to build the harmonic minor scale. Harmonic Minor Formula: 1-½-1-1-½-1½-½ The Difference Between Natural and Harmonic Minor In the natural, the flattened 7th degree creates a weak movement from the V degree (dominant) to I degree (tonic). As you can see in the table on the right, instead of having a 7 like Natural Minor, it now has a 7 like the Major Scale. Master the minor pentatonic scale using the whole fretboard. Often favoured in genres like heavy metal and jazz for its dark tones, harmonic minor scale guitar playing can help us add a darker element to our playing style, creating new moods that aren’t possible using just the minor scale. We will show you some examples of how to use this scale. The A Harmonic Minor is a seven-note scale. HT, 2 octaves. Dan Farrant, the founder of Hello Music Theory, has been teaching music for over 10 years helping thousands of students unlock the joy of music. This seventh major degree on the minor harmonic scale increased the distance between degrees 6 and 7, shortening the distance between degrees 7 and 8. This is very important to know, as this is the chord progression that appears most in the songs when the subject is harmonic minor. Do not get confused, since we are not saying that it is the harmonic minor scale of the fifth degree. The Formula of the Harmonic Minor scale. When building scales, we can use a formula of semitones and tones (half and whole steps) and each type of scale has a different formula. The A Harmonic Minor scale consists of seven notes. The Solution below shows the A harmonic minor scale triad chords (i, ii o, III +, iv, V, VI, vii o) on a piano, with mp3 and midi audio.. Unlike major scales where there is just the one, there are a few different types of minor scales. Review Of The Minor Scale. Great, so theoretically whenever we identify one of these chords/degrees in a song, we can apply the harmonic minor scale to our solo, since the harmony allows for this. The first way to derive the harmonic minor scale is from the major scale, and the second method is by starting with the natural minor scale… Harmonic C Minor Scale = C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, B, C. The formula for forming a harmonic minor scale is W-H-W-W-H-W 1/2-H. (Whole step – half step – whole step – whole step – half step – whole step and a 1/2 step – half step.) More generally, the harmonic minor chords can be seen as follows: Im(M7) – IIm7(b5) – IIImaj7(#5) – IVm7 – V7 – VImaj7 – VII#dim. The melodic minor scale, as it's name implies, is used mainly in melodic lines. Colored circles mark the tones in the diagram, the darker ones highlighting the root notes. In the Natural minor scale the V (5) chord is a minor chord (Gmin7, G Bb D F, in the key of C). The easiest way to discover the context in which you can use this scale is to pay attention to the fifth degree, as we will explain below. In other words, in a natural minor scale the 7th scale degree is a minor 7th, whereas in a harmonic minor scale the 7th scale degree is a major 7th (and will be a half-step away from the root of the scale). In the major key, the V7 resolves in a major chord, as we already know. You could also notate that as m3 for minor 3rd or W+1/2 for a whole step plus a half step. Pentatonic Scale Fluency available from Amazon. Your email address will not be published. Scale Formula: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7; Scale Intervals: ... A Harmonic Minor Scale 3 Notes Per String Fretboard Diagrams. Conclusion * Now play it in different keys. Harmonic Minor Scales overview A: A, B, C, D, E, F, G#, A A#/Bb: A#, C, C#, D#, F, F#, A, A# (theoretically correct is B#, E# and G## instead of C, F and A) / Bb, C, Db, Eb, F, Gb, A, Bb Just follow the above formulas and you’ll have played one. This is because the natural minor scale is based on the major scale. A harmonic minor chords. Learn the note names all harmonic minor scales in table form, in all 12 circle of 5ths keys, including single and double accidental theoretical keys Home Mobile View Scale: .. major blues natural minor harmonic minor melodic minor chromatic major pentatonic minor pentatonic The formula for forming a harmonic minor scale is W-H-W-W-H-W 1/2-H. (Whole step – half step – whole step – whole step – half step – whole step and a 1/2 step – half step.) In this case, to use this scale on top of these chords, you would need to identify, for example, if the chord with the extension m7, let’s say Em7, is the fourth degree of the song (IVm7) as we see in the shape for this progression: For that, the song would need to be in B minor, so you could play the harmonic B minor scale at the time that this Em7 chord appears, because the associated key would be: However, if the song were in G major and the Em7 chord appeared, it would be the sixth degree (VIm7) that belongs to the major key, that is, it would not allow the use of the harmonic B minor scale over it (generically speaking). In other words, in a natural minor scale the 7th scale degree is a minor 7th, whereas in a harmonic minor scale the 7th scale degree is a major 7th (and will be a half-step away from the root of the scale). The “A2” is for the augmented 2nd interval between the 6th & 7th sale degrees. On the natural minor scale, the seventh degree is minor, while in the harmonic minor scale, the seventh degree is major. They all have one thing in common which is they have a flattened third note of the scale. The harmonic minor scale on C. Using The Harmonic Minor Scale In Melody. Scale: A scale is a succession of notes in ascending or descending order [using a fixed intervallic formula.] In melodic composition, the augmented second interval between the sixth and seventh degrees of the harmonic minor scale is considered by many to be … The Harmonic minor was derived by the need for a Dominant chord on the 5th degree (V) of the minor scale - enabling a Perfect Cadence (a Dominant 7th V chord resolving to a I minor chord). Harmonic Minor Scale The harmonic minor scale raises the 7th note of the natural minor scale by a half step and has the following scale formula: W – H – W – W – H – W+… The harmonic minor scale formula (with S representing semitones and T representing tones) is: T – S – T – T – S – T1⁄2 – S. Or shown as whole and half steps it would be: W – H – W – W – H – W1⁄2 – H. This will help you know how to make a harmonic minor scale starting on any key. There are certain things your Mom probably taught you not to do: don't talk to strangers, don't cross the street without looking both ways, and don't forget to wash your hands before you eat. Thanks for stopping by and if you have any questions get in touch! Today, we’ll be looking at the harmonic minor scale. If you want a … Minor scales provide a darker, and often more complex sound than major scales. The harmonic minor scale can be derived two different ways. Compare them: Notice how the only difference is in the seventh degree (in this case, the G note). This resolution is typical of the harmonic minor context, as it does not exist in the natural major key or the natural minor. The Harmonic minor was derived by the need for a Dominant chord on the 5th degree (V) of the minor scale - enabling a Perfect Cadence (a Dominant 7th V chord resolving to a I minor chord). The lesson could not be displayed because JavaScript is disabled. Black Orpheus by the Brazilian composer Luiz Bonfa is a bossa nova classic in a minor key. Welcome to Hello Music Theory! * Look for the "harmonic minor" scale formula and write it down. Now that we have talked about both the natural minor and harmonic minor scales, lets take a minute to introduce the 3 rd minor scale in our repertoire: the melodic minor scale. The harmonic minor scale is very similar to the natural minor scale. To play a harmonic minor scale, you simply raise the seventh note of the natural minor scale by a half-step as you go up and down the scale. Harmonic minor scale in Different Keys There are a couple of ways I use to work out the Harmonic minor scale for a different key: Do the method described above which is to find the Major Scale, then the relative minor scale, then make the 7th note natural and not flat. Tonic: The 1st note of the C harmonic minor scale is C. Major 2nd: The 2nd note of the scale is D. Minor 3rd: The 3rd note of the scale is Eb. Harmonic Minor Scale The harmonic minor scale raises the 7th note of the natural minor scale by a half step and has the following scale formula: W – H – W – W – H – W+… It uses both the natural minor and harmonic minor forms. We wouldn’t use the E minor harmonic scale! Why we use harmony from both Natural and Harmonic Minor – Natural Minor alone lacks essential jazz chords, like the V7 dominant. If you’re studying an instrument then learning about the harmonic minor scale is definitely something you’ll need to do. So compared to the major scale (1 2 3 4 5 6 7) it’s got a minor third and a minor sixth. Starting with The Tertian Chords of The Harmonic Minor Scale The natural minor scale can be thought of as a major scale with the 3rd 6th and 7th notes lowered by one half step. This scale has been widely used for over 300 years by everyone from J.S. Written as steps: whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole and a half, half. The Hungarian minor scale, double harmonic minor scale, or Gypsy minor scale is a type of combined musical scale.It is the fourth mode of the double harmonic scale.It is the same as the harmonic minor scale, except that it has a raised fourth scale degree to introduce an additional gap, or augmented second.It is a symmetrical scale with a slightly ambiguous tonal centre, due to the many … Because the parent harmonic minor scale of the minor ii-V-I contains the third of the dominant 7th chord. It’s not only called the ‘harmonic’ scale, but there is a different scale in existence called the ‘melodic’. The only difference is that the scale used here was the harmonic minor scale. The harmonic minor scale is a type of minor scale that is very similar to the natural minor. Melodic Minor. In this music theory video lesson, we will learn how to build the harmonic minor scale. This change provided a very interesting sound. The harmonic minor scale is interesting and dynamic-sounding. Written as semi-notes: 2 - 1 - 2 - 2 - 1 - 3 - 1. If you’ve never fooled around with harmonic minor before, you’ll be immediately taken with the exotic almost Spanish sound. It comes up all the time in music exams and is definitely in the music theory exam syllabus. THE SPEECH THAT LEFT THE AUDIENCE IN TEARS | TRIBUTE TO RAVI ZACHARIAS (1946 - 2020) - Duration: 44:54. Using A harmonic minor as an example, it means raising the 7th note, G natural, by a semitone to G# as shown below. * Play the A harmonic minor scale on your guitar. Also, most of the time when we refer to a ‘minor' scale we're generally referring to the natural minor. The harmonic minor scale (or Aeolian ♯7 scale) has the same notes as the natural minor scale except that the seventh degree is raised by one semitone, creating an augmented second between the sixth and seventh degrees. * Fill in the notes for the A harmonic minor scale. Note: when we say “played on top of the V7 chord” it means that it is the harmonic minor scale of the first degree (Im7), only played when the V7 chord appears. We will not do this whole procedure again so as not to get boring. Harmonic Minor Scale Intervals. Tonic: The 1st note of the D harmonic minor scale is D. Major 2nd: The 2nd note of the scale … For example: Natural C Minor Scale: C - D - Eb - F - G - Ab - Bb - C. Harmonic C Minor Scale: C - D - Eb - F - G - Ab - B - C. I will here only briefly describe the natural minor scale, since you can have all the details of this scale in the lesson “How to form a natural minor scale“.First of all: why is the natural minor scale named as such? * Look for the notes of the A harmonic minor scale on your guitar neck. Just think of the harmonic minor being used for it's harmonic functions. The context in which the harmonic minor scale most often appears in solos, riffs or arrangements is when a V7 chord resolves in a minor chord. Required fields are marked *. The harmonic minor scale on C. Using The Harmonic Minor Scale In Melody. The harmonic minor scale is sometimes known as the Aeolian ♯7 scale. In the two-octave pattern, the first note in the scale is on the 6th string, 5th fret. B natural is the third of the G7 in a minor ii-V-I. The minor scale sort of sounds a bit like it can’t be used in a melodic context. Bach to Surf Guitar pioneer Dick Dale (Check out the Pulp Fiction Soundtrack) to modern Progressive Fusion and Metal players.It’s also widely used in Flamenco and Shred Metal genres extensively.. To play a harmonic minor scale, you simply raise the seventh note of the scale by a half-step as you go up and down the scale. The only difference is that we raise the 7th note by a semitone (half step). 2 - Build an A major scale. In addition, the dominant V7 is very easy to identify with the ear, especially in a context of a minor tonality. The only difference between the two is in the seventh degree. Download my free eBook with all my favourite music theory resources. For Educational Purposes only. A Harmonic Minor scale for guitar. Harmonic Minor The harmonic minor scale differs from the natural minor scale in only one way – the 7th scale degree is raised by half-step. 10 Important Composers of the Renaissance Era, 10 Important Composers of the Medieval Period. Let’s take a look. ©2014-2020 All Rights Reserved - Simplifying Theory, we used to form the chords of the major key, Notes from the Am Natural scale: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Notes from the Am Harmonic scale: A, B, C, D, E, F, G#. The harmonic minor scale contains 7 notes. Pentatonic Scale Fluency: Available on Kindle and Paperback. The problem is that, in practice, the chords Im(M7), IIImaj7(#5) rarely appear, and the other chords with the extensions m7(b5), m7, 7, maj7, appear in numerous contexts, which makes the approach difficult, because it may be that these chords belong to another key that is not the harmonic minor. The harmonic minor scale formula (with S representing semitones and T representing tones) is: Or shown as whole and half steps it would be: This will help you know how to make a harmonic minor scale starting on any key. In the major scale, the V→I movement creates a strong and decisive feel of resolution. This is because it’s the same as the Aeolian mode but with a raised 7th note of the scale. I’m Dan and I run this website. The term minor scale can be broken down into two words – minor and scale.. Composers have gone to great lengths to set rules about what to do and what not to do when writing melodies. This is the only difference between Natural and Harmonic Minor scales. You could also notate that as m3 for minor 3rd or W+1/2 for a whole step plus a half step. The Melodic Minor Scale. In this post, we’re going to be looking at one type of minor scale called the harmonic minor. Practice this scale a lot in this context and try to identify songs that contain this  V7 – Im7 progression. It’s not only called the ‘harmonic’ scale, but there is a different scale in existence called the ‘melodic’. Furthermore, the C Harmonic Minor scale contains the note Ab. The context in which the harmonic minor scale most often appears in solos, riffs or arrangements is when a V7 chord resolves in a minor chord. The “A2” is for the augmented 2nd interval between the 6th & 7th sale degrees. Harmonic Minor The harmonic minor scale differs from the natural minor scale in only one way – the 7th scale degree is raised by half-step. In the Natural minor scale the V (5) chord is a minor chord (Gmin7, G Bb D F, in the key of C). Any C minor scale (natural, harmonic, or melodic) is a relative minor scale of E♭ major; Any C minor scale (natural, harmonic, or melodic) is a parallel minor scale of C major; So far we have only worked with natural minor scales; they always follow the “W H W W H W W” formula. Harmonic minor scale formula = W-H-W-W-H-A2-H Hopefully, you know that “W” stands for whole step and “H” for half step. The first way to derive the harmonic minor scale is from the major scale, and the second method is by starting with the natural minor scale… I’ll be adding more details to this post soon so post any questions you have and I’ll do my best to answer. This resolution is typical of the harmonic minor context, as it does not exist in the natural major key or the natural minor. Check out this post to read more about the other types of modal scales. Your ear will quickly get used to this resolution and will be sharp to perceive it when it appears. A harmonic minor scale is a seven note scale with a numeric formula of 1-2-♭ 3-4-5-♭ 6-7-8/1. As a curiosity, a musical style that is based a lot on the minor harmonic scale is Spanish music. To play a harmonic minor scale, you simply raise the seventh note of the natural minor scale by a half-step as you go up and down the scale. For you to see this difference, let’s use the natural A minor scale and the A minor harmonic scale as an example. To learn how it's implemented check out the chords section. Your email address will not be published. There is another way to discover the natural minor scale. OVERCOMING DAILY Recommended for you Notice how this scale alone already has a pleasant flavor. The scale formula = 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7. © Hello Music Theory 2020 | All rights reserved | Sitemap. The change comes in the seventh degree. These can be described as intervals, as semi-notes or steps on the guitar fingerboard from the first note to the next octave. Harmonic Minor is identical to the Natural Minor scale for the first six scale degrees. This resolution is typical of the harmonic minor context, as it does not exist in the natural major key or the natural minor. The harmonic minor scale has a very "Gothic" or "Medieval" sound which comes from the major seventh interval opposing the minor third. Just follow the above formulas and you’ll have played one. The harmonic minor scale and the natural minor scale (1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7) are pretty much the same expect the harmonic minor has raised it’s 7th by one semitone. Harmonic minor scale in Different Keys There are a couple of ways I use to work out the Harmonic minor scale for a different key: Do the method described above which is to find the Major Scale, then the relative minor scale, then make the 7th note natural and not flat. Tonality: There are two types of tonality (or key) in music – the major and minor keys. Harmonic Minor Scale Intervals. The formula of the harmonic minor is almost identical to the natural minor, the only difference between them is the 7th degree, In natural minor, we have a minor 7th degree and in harmonic minor a major 7th degree. The chords of the key generated by the A minor harmonic scale is as follows: Note: the method we use to form this chords is the same that we used to form the chords of the major key from the major scale. The Melodic Minor scale, in traditional application, has a different formula … The minor scale sort of sounds a bit like it can’t be used in a melodic context. Harmonic minor scale formula = W-H-W-W-H-A2-H. Hopefully, you know that “W” stands for whole step and “H” for half step. Since then he's been working to make music theory easy for over 1 million students in over 80 countries around the world. How to use the harmonic minor scale. Notice that in the “V7 – Im7” resolution, the harmonic minor scale is played on top of the V7 chord, as this chord characterizes the harmonic minor tonality. For example, if the E7 chord appears resolving in the Am chord, we would use the A minor harmonic scale at the time that E7 was being played. For example, the C Harmonic Minor scale contains the B natural note. By altering these notes we also change the intervals which make up the scale. And in the minor key there is no V7, because the fifth degree is minor (Vm7): Therefore, the “V7 – Im7” resolution is typical of the minor key. The harmonic minor scale can be derived two different ways. … If she had known about augmented seconds, she probably would have warned you about those, too. Words – minor and harmonic minor – natural minor scale of the harmonic minor can. Immediately taken with the ear, especially in a melodic context written as steps: whole,,. To a major 7th, transforms the scale he graduated from the first to... 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